If there is anything in this thread that makes it to where I need to move it or change it, let me know and I will.
If you like it the hard way, go with C and then C++, if prefer it easier I'd recommend Python and Ruby, but as a general advise, go learning the concepts of objected oriented programming, then learning a new language is just a matter of syntax, more or less
Front-End website stuff, Back-End server stuff with NodeJS and cross platform apps with apache cordova for example
A lot, but google might help better with this question
We can discuss a lot about what is a good language or not and which one is the best. I think it depends a lot of what you want to do with it. I think that just wanting to learn how to program is a good thing. If you are curious, try different language and make your own opinion.